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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report May 1, 1959"

No. 46 May, 1959 




ONTARIO 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 

REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Division of Fish and Wildlife 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



Hon. J. W. Spooner F. A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 46 May, 1959 



Page 

The Possibilities of Successfully Introducing 
Hungarian Partridges to the Fort Frances Area. 

- by J. A. Farr 1 

Wild Turkey Project, Lindsay District. 

- by Ken Tolmie 8 

Waterfowl Production and Predation In the Marshes of 

Prince Edward County. - by A. T. Cringan 10 

Goose Survey - Bear Head Lake, September 10-26, 195$ 

- by R. Malloch 13 

A District Project For Collecting Data From Big Game 

Hunters. - by D. W. Simkin 17 

Big Game Browse and Pellet Survey in Sioux Lookout 

District. - by D. W. Simkin 19 

Enforcement Project, Port Arthur District, 195$. 

- by D. D'Agostini 27 

Report On the Twenty-fourth North American Wildlife 
Conference, New York, March 1-4, 1959. 

- by J. K. Reynolds 30 

Kenora District Beaver Project, 1957-195$. 

- by P. A. Thompson 37 

A Fish Poisoning Project Report For Sunova Lake, 

County of Oxford, Ontario. - by J. F. Gage . 42 



THE POSSIBILITIES OF INTRODUCING HUNGARIAN PARTRIDGES 

TO THE FORT FRANCES DISTRICT 

by 
J. A, Farr 



Abstract 

1. . Small numbers of Hungarian Partridges have invaded the Fort 

Frances area in the past, but none has become established. 

2. Food supply in this district is probably fair. Severe winters 
could reduce this to a critical level. 

3. Normal weather conditions in this district would be rated extreme 
for partridge by Czech standards. 

4o Heavy rainfall during the nesting season is probably a critical 
factor. Fort Frances rainfall averages for June are almost an 
inch higher than for any known Canadian area with a huntable 
population of Hungarian Partridges. 

5. Any attempt at introduction of Hungarian Partridges would 
probably fail to establish a huntable population. 



During the past several years increasing interest has been 
shown in upland game hunting in the Fort Frances District, especially 
for Sharp-tailed Grouse. At present upland game in this district is 
not as heavily hunted as it could be. The addition of another desir- 
able upland game bird might serve to attract more hunters to this 
type of shooting. Later, when hunting becomes heavier an added 
species might serve to spread hunting pressure out and perhaps help 
compensate for fluctuations in the populations of other upland game 
species. Because Hungarian Partridge have already established them- 
selves in huntable numbers in several areas in Ontario, they would be 
a likely choice if another upland game bird were to be introduced,, 

The purpose of this paper is to summarize available informa- 
tion on environmental conditions which could influence the success 
of any Hungarian Partridge introduction to the Fort Frances area. 
From this information an attempt is made to predict whether an 
introduction would succeed or fail. 

Natural Spread Versus Artificial Plantings 

Leopold (1940) states that "in many instances partridges 
have spread naturally over localities in which previous artificial 
plantings had failed." Evidence gathered from older hunters in this 



- 2 - 

area indicates that small scattered numbers of partridges have reached 
this area in the past. None has become permanently established, however. 
An attempted introduction in the Emo area was made in the early 1930 ? s. 
These birds existed for a few years and then disappeared. No evidence 
is available to indicate that these birds nested successfully. 
Leopold (ojd cit ) notes that introductions of partridges in the Waukesha 
area of Wisconsin were unsuccessful prior to 1924? although intro- 
ductions totalling at least 1,200 pairs were made during the period 
190S to 1918. Any introduction in the Fort Frances area would have 
to be large and extensive. 

F ood and Cover 

A proper analysis of this phase of Hungarian Partridge 
ecology is beyond the scope of this paper. However, land use in the 
western portion of the Fort Frances district is somewhat comparable 
to that in the province of Saskatchewan where partridge are found, 
with the exception that there is less cleared land in the agricultural 
area here. Lane use here is similar to that in the New Liskeard area 
where there is a fair population of partridges. At present practi- 
cally no corn is raised in the Fort Frances area, should corn ever 
be grown, the food supply could be considerably improved. Probably 
food for partridges in this area could be classified as fair to good, 
because considerable grain is grown, clover is an important forage 
crop and weeds are abundant. However, severe winters with deep or 
crusted snow would reduce the available food to a critical level. 
Cover for partridges appears to be good. 

Climate 

European studies of the relationship between climatic 
conditions and partridge productivity, though not directly comparable, 
provide information which is helpful in analysing North American 
climatic conditions. Kokes and Knobloch (1947? pp» 57-73) studied 
climatic conditions which may have precipitated a severe partridge 
population decline in Czechoslovakia during 1940 and 1941 • These 
authors compared climatic data for areas where populations were 
severely reduced with data for periods when populations had been good. 
Their findings are summarized in Table I. 

TABLE I - 

Conditions Normal Extreme 

Period of snow cover 

Average snow depth 

No. days below freezing 

May rainfall 

May temperature 

June rainfall 

June temperature 



2 1 
10, 

50 

7 

9 


mc 
,2 


cm. (4") 


3h 

17. 

95 

IOC 


mo. 
5 cm, 

) mm. 


. (65") 
(3.9") 


45 mrr 
20°C 


1. (15") 
(68°F) 


60 
16 C 


mm + (2 3/8") 
>C (6l°F) 



- 3 - 

It is of importance to note that in no year during the past 
ten has the Fort Frances area met all of the climatic requirements 
listed as extreme for partridges in Czechoslovakia. In most years, 
this district falls short on several counts (see Appendix I). 

General information indicates that partridges which have 
become acclimatized in North America are hardier than their European 
counterparts. Huntable populations definitely exist in Canada 
although one or several of the above listed extremes are exceeded. 

It is a general principle that for any animal environmental 
conditions are most likely to be limiting during the breeding season. 
For partridges, it seems that rainfall and temperature during the 
nesting and hatching season can be limiting factors (Kokes and 
Knobloch, op cit ; Yeatter, 1934? p. 72). 

In order to best evaluate Canadian climatic conditions, 
comparable rainfall and precipitation averages for parts of Canada 
with sizeable populations of partridges were obtained from Department 
of Transport Meteorological records (no date) . Figures for May, 
June, July and August were used. Climographs have been used to show 
these findings (Figure 1). Goodness of fit is not necessarily 
indicative of anything, but marked failure of fit (or lack of over 
lap) usually indicates that temperature and moisture conditions may 
be sufficiently different to have a limiting effect (Odum, 1954? pp» 
45-47). The two graphs shown for the Fort Frances area require some 
explanation. If figures from Department of Transport averages are 
used, June rainfall appears comparable to Morrisburg, and July 
figures for Haileybury are almost identical. However, 10 year aver- 
ages from U. S. Department of Commerce Weather Bureau summaries for 
International Falls airport (5 mi. from Fort Frances) yield a 
different picture, especially for June rainfall (see appendix II). 
It is felt that greater faith should be attached to International 
Falls 9 figures because they have been obtained by a bona fide weather 
station with accurate recording apparatus. A glance at the graph 
will show that there is a tendency for climographs to be progressively 
more skewed to the right for areas of progressively poorer partridge 
habitat. This tendency is most marked for the Fort Frances area. 
Both the June and July rainfall figures appear too much higher than 
those for other areas to permit a successful hatching period from year 
to year. 

C onclusion 

Because Hungarian Partridge have failed to establish them- 
selves here naturally, and because average June and July rainfall 
appear too heavy it is concluded that attempted introductions in the 
immediate future would fail to become established in huntable numbers. 
A decrease in average early summer rainfall, or perhaps changes in 
land use might merit further investigation of this situation in the 
more distant future. 



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B ibliography 

Anonymous? Climatic summaries for selected meteorological stations 
in the Dominion of Canada, Volume 1. Department of 
Transport , Toronto, Ontario. 

Anonymous l U. S. Department of Commerce, Weather Bureau local 

climatological data for International Falls - May, 1949 - 
August, 195#. U. So Gov't. Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C. 

Kokes Otakar and Eduard Knob-lochs The partridge, Its life history, 
propagation and management. (Translated from Czech) 
Scientific Publishers, Prague, 1947, 278 pages, mimeo. 

Leopold, Aldos Spread of the Hungarian partridge in Wisconsin. 
Trans. Wis. Academy of Arts and Letters. Vol. 32s 
5-28, 1940, 



. , 



Odum, Eugene Pi Fundamentals of ecology. W. B. Saunders Co 
Philadelphia, 3^4 pp. 

Yeatter, Ralph Es The Hungarian Partridge in the Great Lakes region. 
U. of Mich., School of Forestry, Bulletin #5, 1934, 92 pp 





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- 7 - 

APPENDIX II - Average Temperatures During May, June, July and 
August for Areas Known to Have Populations of 
Hungarian Partridges. 
(from Department of Transport Records) 



Lethbridge Alberta 



May 
June 
July 
August 



May 
June 
August 
July 



Av. Temp. 


Av. 


Pptn. 


51°F 
59 
64 
63 


1 
2 
1 
1 


,35" 
.67 
,60 
,4^ 


Hail 


5ybury 


Av. Temp. 


Av. 


Pptn. 


51°F 
56.5 
62.5 

66.5 


2 
2 
2 

3 


,69'" 

.33 

.93 

.79 



3attleford Saskatchewan 
Av. Temp. Av. Pptn. 



54°F 

63 

65 

57 



1.55" 
2.34 
2.15 
1.32 



I-iorrisburg-Brockville Ont 
av. Temp. Av. Pptn. 



56°F 
66 
63 
70 



3.22" 
3.20 
3.34 
3.12 



May 
June 
July 
August 



- Comparable Data For Fort Frances 



Av, 



x 

Temp, 



52°F 

63 
63 

64 



x 
Av. Pptn. 

2.59" 
3.49 
3.35 
3.53 



x From 23 yr. Dept. of Transport Averages. 



Av. Temp. 

50°F 
60 

64 
62 



3€ 

Av. Pptn, 

2.45" 
4.47 
4.01 
3.70 



m. From past 10 year averages, Weather Bureau, International Falls 
Airport. 



- $ - 

WILD TURKEY PROJECT - LINDSAY DISTRICT 

by 
Ken Tolmie 



In early September of 1954, fifty-six eight-week-old wild 
turkeys were released in Lot 15, Concession 3, Township of Clarke, 
County of Durham, by the Toronto Anglers and Hunters Association. 



The site may be described 
sand and gravelly sand areas in the 
watershed. The terrain is strongly 
excessive drainage. Forest cover c 
red oak and white pine. Hawthorn t 
fairly numerous. Land use is limit 
ranch land) and extensive woodlots. 
miles of Lake Ontario, the area is 
inaccessible when compared to the a 
Ontario. 



as being located in the Pontypool 
headwaters of the Ganaraska 
rolling to hilly and steep with 
onsists of beech, hard maple, 
rees and other wildlife shrubs are 
ed to permanent pasture (rough 

Although located within eleven 
fairly remote and relatively 
gricultural areas of Southern 



Since 1954, information on the movements of these birds, as 
reported by interested parties, has been recorded. Most of the 
reports were further investigated by Departmental personnel but it 
did not appear that the turkeys were inhabiting any particular area 
for any length of time. They appeared to be quite transient in their 
movements. 

The only information we have to date is contained in the 
following report of observations 2 



















No. of 


Observer 


Date 






Loc 


ation 


Birds 


Joseph Murphy 


Sept . 


1954 


Lot 


20, 


Con. 


2, 


Ops 


1 


K. Tolmie & 


















M. Keast 


Oct. 


1955 


Lot 


21, 


Con. 


5, 


Clarke 


24 


Arthur Mercer 


Apr. 


1955 


Lot 


13, 


Con. 


d, 


Hope 


8 


Reg. Elliott 


June, 


1955 


Lot 


5, 


Con. 


7, 


Clarke 


3 


Don Burns 


Sept. 


1955 


Lot 


16, 


Con. 


4, 


Manvers 


1 


Reported to Dr. 


















C.H.D. Clarke 


Oct. 


1955 


Near Kendal 




Clarke 


20 


Mike Venton 


Oct. 


1955 


Lot 


2, 


Con. 


6, 


Manvers 


1 


Art Lowe 


July 


1956 


Lot 


10, 


Con. 


7, 


Clarke 


4 


John Graham 


Sept. 


1957 


Lot 


15, 


Con. 


9, 


Darlington 


2 



No observations have been reported for over a year. It is 
likely that the birds became widely dispersed and then disappeared 
completely. 



LINDSAY DISTRICT 



9 




Dalrlingrn ox 



S - Release Point, 1954. 
(2ZI - Birds Seen, 1954. 
X - Birds Seen, 1955. 
C - Birds Seen, 1956„ 
© - Birds Seen, 1957. 



%. 



10 







20 



40 



- 10 - 

WATERFOWL PRODUCTION AND PREDATION 
IN THE FiARSHES OF PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY 

by 

A. T„ Cringan 



The production of waterfowl in the marshes of Prince Edward 
County was, during 195#, much lower than expected on the basis of 
available habitat, presumably much lower than that of comparable- 
sized marshes in northern New York State. 

Preliminary evaluation of the ecological factors that may 
currently influence production must await compilation of reports 
concerning field work done during the past summer. Meanwhile, I wish 
to record my impression that production is limited by a deficiency of 
predation-free nesting sites. 

Three species of mammalian duck-nest predators, Coloured Fox, 
Raccoon and Striped Skunk, are abundant in Prince Edward County. 
There were few places not inhabited by these mammals in 195$> partly as 
a result of low water levels. Many areas that were normally islands 
were joined to the mainland by dry cat-tail marshes. Current land-use 
practices favour construction of causeways, rendering such "islands'' 
even more accessible to mammalian predators. 

This "predation-free nesting site deficiency" hypothesis has 
not been proven. Among indications that it may be true are: 

For the Blue-winged Teal 

- favoured nesting areas are hayfields, pastures and perhaps short 
grass meadows situated close to marshes and water; high popula- 
tions of mammalian predators accessible to most such places; 

- four Blue-winged Teal nests found, two predated, one probably 
hatched and one fate unknown; 

- brood censuses suggested that there Were only one or two 
broods of Blue-winged Teal present for each 10 pairs or 
territorial drakes seen during breeding stock surveys. 

For Mallard 

- all of the nine Mallard nests seen were on islands; seven 
hatched, one was predated and one fate unknown; 

- reports of early season nesting on mainland and in drier 
marshes were received; brood observations suggest that few 
such nests were successful; 

- remains of three female Mallards were found at fox dens; these 
could have been predated, although proof is lacking; 



- 11 - 

- brood censuses suggest that there were fewer Mallard broods 
than expected on the basis of breeding stocks present. 



For Black Duck 



- this species is very widespread in the county and appears to 
occupy a great diversity of habitats; as it was net particu- 
larly common in the large marshes where most of the field work 
was done, we were unable to collect a great deal of informa- 
tion about it. 

Wood Duck 

- as for Black Duck, our techniques failed to yield a great deal 
of information about the nesting of this species; its nests may 
be particularly susceptible to predation by raccoons. 

Discussion and Recommendations 

I feel now that my suggestion of water level control, made 
last spring, was premature. Undoubtedly a costly and complex manage- 
ment program could be carried out - but if, as I suspect, nest preda- 
tion is a limiting factor, the best of management plans might fail. 
It would be well to investigate nest predation much more fully, before 
investing heavily in physical management. 

Although I intend to present to you extensive recommendations 
at a later date, I wish to place the following suggestions on record 
now, so that action for 1959 may be planned. 

I respectfully recommend that: 

(1) An extensive program of investigations into production of water- 
fowl in southern Ontario be set up as a long-range project; it 
should include studies of production in pothole areas e.g. 
Wellington County, beaver-inhabited areas along the edge of the 
Precambrian Shield, and productive large marshes, e.g. Luther 
Marsh, as well as those in non-productive areas. 

(2) As part of the production investigations for 1959> intensive 
studies of fox-waterfowl and raccoon-waterfowl relationships in 
Prince Edward County. This work could be done by a team of two 
students (either two graduate students or one graduate and one 
under-graduate) working mostly together. Most of the period - 
April 1st - July 31st would be needed for nesting studies. The 
balance of the summer could be spent in Prince Edward County, 
further studying the predators and perhaps also banding ducks. 
Anticipated costs would have to include those of vehicular 
transportation, purchase of boat and technical equipment required, 
together with the regular costs of maintenance. 



- 12 - 

Nest predation studies should include trial erection of nesting 
baskets and boxes in predation-free sites, such to be erected in 
March, 1959? so as to determine the local management prospects 
of such devices. Funds to cover the construction and erection 
of 100 nesting baskets and 100 nesting boxes would be required. 



- 13 - 

GOOSE SURVEY - BEAR HEAD LAKE 

SEPT. 10, 1953 - SEPT. 26, 1953 

by 
R. Malloch 



Upon receiving reports of a heavy concentration of Canada 
Geese being seen by natives and prospectors, the possibilities of a 
Goose Banding Station at Bear Head Lake were explored by this survey. 
The lake is situated at longitude 53° 25' north and latitude 37° 15' 
west, approximately 40 air miles north of Webequay or 100 miles south- 
west of Winisk, on the Winisk River. Bear Head, (which is only a 
wide spot on the Winisk River, and in the true sense of the word 
can hardly be called a lake) is north of the 11th Base Line, and 
well inside the Hinterland area, so is seldom disturbed by any but 
natives trapping in the winter. 

Acting upon a request from Maple, R. Malloch, Conservation 
Officer with John Jacob of Webequay, whose trapline covers this area 
as guide, made an on the spot investigation. The following informa- 
tion is taken from field notes made by R. Malloch from September 
10th, to September 26th, 1953, while in the Bear Head Lake area. 

TABLE I - Canada Geese sighted by days, including all geese 
seen, flying or feedings, and weather conditions. 

Date Weather Total Geese 



Sept. 10 Clear and cool, light winds, W 336 

Sept. 11 Rain and high winds, S 53 5 

Sept. 12 Clear and cool, light winds, variable 230 

Sept. 13 Clear and warm, light winds, variable 500 

Sept. 14 Rain and cold, high winds, E 550 

Sept. 15 Rain and mist, moderate winds, N 400 

Sept. 16 Snow from N. in a.m., clearing in p.m. 600 

Sept. 17 Snow flurries, cold, light winds, S 350 

Sept. 13 Overcast and cold, high winds, S 550 

Sept. 19 Clear and cool, light winds, S 950 

Sept. 20 Rain 6c fog, vis. nil., light winds SE 2 50 

Sept. 21 Overcast & mist, light winds, S 250 

Sept. 22 Clear and cool, light winds, S 250 

Sept. 23 Clear and cool, light winds, W 600 

Sept. 24 Rain and cold, moderate winds, NE 300 

Sept. 25 Snow and «old, moderate winds, N 400 

Sept. 26 Clear and cold, moderate winds, N 700 



- 14 - 



TABLE 


II - 


Geese seen in main 


feeding 


areas of Bear Head 


Lake 


o 


Dat< 


2 


These geese moved on approach of our canoe at time 
mentioned, and may have been feeding for hours before 
that . 


Location On Lake 

NE corner 
SE side 


Time 

1200 
1600 


Seen 

hrs. 
hrs. 


No. 


of Geese 


Sept . 


10 


108 

124 


Sept . 


11 


3E 
SE 


side 
side 




0600 
1400 


hrsc 

hrs. 




125 
250 


Sept . 


12 


CD 

SE 
NE 


end of Lake 

side 

corner 


0800 
1200 
1500 


hrs . 
hrs. 
hrs. 




90 
100 
12 5 


Sept . 


13 


SE 

NE 


side 
corner 




0700 
1000 


hrs. 
hrs. 




400 
35 


Sept o 


14 


SE 


side 




1500 


hrs. 




400 


Sept . 


15 


SE 
SE 


side 
bay 




0600 
1100 


hrs. 
hrs . 




2 50 
150 


Sept. 


16 


SE 
SE 
NE 
SE 


side 
bay 
bay 
bay 




1000 
1100 
1500 
1800 


hrs. 
hrs. 
hrs. 
hrs. 




27 

14 
500 

25 


Sept . 


17 


SE 
NE 
NE 
SE 
SE 
SE 


side 

corner 

bay 

side 

bay 

side 




0600 
0900 
1000 
1400 
1600 
1800 


hrs. 
hrs. 
hrs. 

hrs. 
hrso 
hrs. 




250 

85 
150 

175 
100 

175 


Sept . 


18 


SE 
NE 
SE 


side 

bay 

aid' 




0600 
1200 
1500 


hrs. 
hrs. 
hrs . 




225 

100 
175 


Sept o 


19 


SE 
NW 
NE 
SE 
SE 


side 

lake 

bay 

side 

bay 




0600 
0900 
1300 
1700 
1800 


hrs. 
hrs. 

hrs. 
hrs . 
hrs. 




200 
200 
250 
300 
36 


Sept. 


20 


NW 


lake 




1600 


hrs. 




125 


Sept. 


21 


SE 
NE 


side 
bay 




0600 
1100 


hrs. 
hrs. 




50 
150 



- 15 - 



TABLE II - cont. 

Date Location On Lake 

Sept. 22 NE bay 

SE side 

Sept. 23 SE side 

SE side 

Sept. 24 SE side 

Sept. 25 SE side 

Sept. 26 SE side 

NE bay 
NW lake 



Time 


Seen 


No. of Geese 


1000 
1800 


hrs. 
hrs. 


125 
75 


0700 
1900 


hrs. 
hrs. 


150 
300 


1200 


hrs. 


150 


1900 


hrs. 


150 


0600 

1200 
1600 


hrs. 

hrs. 
hrs. 


50 
400 
200 



It will be seen from Table II that the greatest numbers of 
geese were seen on the south-east side of Bear Head Lake. This area 
was very shoaly and consists of numerous grassy islands and mud 
flats, studded with rocks of various sizes. Of all the feeding 
localities found, this seems most ideal for banding purposes, being 
fairly close to a good camp site and aeroplane landing area. 

John Jacob, Ojibway guide claims that the geese will feed 
in the Lake all day if not bothered, but if disturbed will leave 
Bear Head and feed back in the muskeg. Observations seem to bear 
this statement out, as the geese flew mostly east or west towards 
the muskeg areas when lifted. The geese would not return to these 
feeding areas in any great numbers until 1600 to 1800 hours when 
they could be seen before dark and heard after dark returning to the 
lake from easterly or westerly directions. 

On September 20th., the geese were dropping off in numbers 
enought to be very noticeable. For the remainder of the stay on 
Bear Head Lake, most of our count consisted of flocks of Canadas 
flying high in V formation and heading in a southerly direction which 
seems to indicate, with the cold weather conditions, a migration 
of Canadas from more northerly lakes and rivers. On the day and 
night of September 25th, there were winds of 20 to 30 miles per 
hour from the north and heavy snow squalls. During this period 
geese could be seen flying high and in V formation heading in a 
southerly direction. 

On Saturday, September 27th., our day of departure, one 
flock of Snows and Blue Geese was observed south of Bear Head Lake 
in the Winisk River. As no Snow or Blue Geese had been seen around 
the Lake in our 17 day stay this was a further indication of a 
southerly movement of geese. 



- 16 - 

Black Ducks and Mallards were observed in flocks up to 
100 in the same feeding areas used by the Canada Geese, and at the 
same time might be caught in traps set for goose banding purposes. 

No conclusions can be drawn from the foregoing report as 
to the permanent population of Canada Geese on Bear Head Lake, but, 
would estimate that 300 would seem reasonable during the summer months 

A spring and summer survey would show more fully the 
hatching population, but, a banding operation started in the last 
two weeks of August or the first week of September, should bring 
favourable results, as the Canada Geese and Black Duck population at 
that time seems sufficient for this purpose. 

Note 

There is not a large scale map of this area available, so 
a map is not included in this report. The Attawapiskat Map is eight 
miles to the inch and is not accurate enough to enlarge. 

Species of Birds and Mammals Seen and Identified At Bear Head Lake 

Birds Mammals 

Canada Geese Weasel 

Black Duck Mice 

Pied-billed Grebe Mink 

Goldeneye Beaver 

Baldpate Moose 

Pintail Muskrat 

Bufflehead 

Mallard 

Mergansers 

Loons 

Swan (whistling) 

Blue Heron 

American Bittern 

Greater Yellowlegs 

Osprey 

Crow 

Raven 

Canada Jay 

Kingfisher 

Sandpiper 

Rough-legged Hawk 

Sparrows 

Sandhill Crane 



- 17 - 

A DISTRICT PROJECT FOR COLLECTING DATA 
FROM BIG GAME HUNTERS 

by 

D. Wo Simkin 



A year ago this fall for the first time a big game checking 
station was operated at Red Lake Road on the Red Lake Highway during 
the first 22 days of the moose and deer season,, The location of this 
station is a strategic one as all hunters going in by car to hunt the 
large area of excellent moose range and good deer range north of that 
point had to pass by it both on the way in and again on the way out. 

It was believed that by contacting the hunters on the way 
in and requesting various forms of information from them, after 
explaining the value of these data, that a considerable amount of data 
hitherto unavailable could be gathered here,, The data required were, 
specifically, moose and deer jaws, and reproductive tracts. Each 
hunter was given a printed sheet discussing various interesting topics 
pertaining to the moose hunt and to work which was being done in 
connection with moose management in the Sioux Lookout District and 
in Ontario as a whole. Attached to the printed form was a department- 
printed diagram of a moose or deer reproductive tract, along with a 
plastic bag in which the female organs could be placed if a cow or 
doe were shot. 

The hunters were told that Department personnel would be at 
the station at all times up until October 22nd to receive these parts. 
They were also told that for anyone bringing in either a jaw or repro- 
ductive tract a 8" x 10" moose picture would be given ■ 

In comparison with data of this type collected in previous 
seasons the number of jaws and tracts collected was very encouraging. 
All told 163 jaws from 321 moose were aged and 22 reproductive tracts 
were submitted. 

This year we aimed higher with the hope of collecting as 
many jaws and tracts as possible. To achieve this it was decided 
that a small inexpensive yet unique type of reward should be given to 
co-operative hunters who put out an extra bit of effort and bring in 
the desired data to us. 

As a good start had been made in 1957 on a Red Lake Highway 
area moose productivity study it was deemed desirable to continue it. 
Similar to the 1957 procedure all hunters interviewed on their way 
into the hunting area were given up to date information sheets on which 
our requests were made for tracts and jaws. Also as before a genital 
tract diagram and a plastic bag were attached to each printed sheet. 
The only difference from 1957 was that a wooden handled skinning 
knife with Compliments of Ontario Department of Lands and Forests 



- 18 - 

engraved on it was offered for each moose reproductive tract accompanied 
by the lower jaw from the same animal „ 

Samples of these knives were displayed at the checking 
station and at other points of licence issue. The interest displayed 
by the hunters in these was considerable. 

This year the checking station was manned until October 
19th only, but more moose jaws and reproductive tracts than ever before 
were submitted by moose hunters. One hundred and ninety-six out of a 
total of 291 moose were aged and 71 usable reproductive tracts were 
submitted. Between 10 and 15 additional tracts were brought in which 
being incomplete had to be discarded. 

What caused the tremendous increase in hunter co-operation? 

We believe that the engraved skinning knife offered as a 
reward was almost entirely responsible for this increase in co-opera- 
tion. 

The total expenditure for this project was thus 71 knives 
at $1.15, (.350 for knife plus .300 for engraving) or $81.65. Total 
income 71 reproductive tracts and 193 moose jaws for aging. 

We feel that this was a very worthwhile project and are 
planning to institute a similar scheme for next season. 



' 



- 19 - 

BIG GAME BROWSE AND PELLET SURVEY IN SIOUX 'LOOKOUT DISTRICT 

by 
D. W. Simkin 



Introduction 

In May of 195$ a Passmore-Hepburn browse study of two moose 
winter concentration areas in which aerial inventory had been carried 
out for the last two winters was made. 

These areas were believed to be of two different types both 
of which were representative of a considerable proportion of the 
moose range in the Sioux Lookout District, 

Incidental to the browse study a pellet count survey was 
also made at the same time in order to get an estimate of ungulate 
(moose and deer) numbers for comparison with the aerial survey 
results. 

Description of Plots 

Plot //l at Oak Lake, Lat. 50° 25'; Long. 94° 50 ? is located 
adjacent to the easily accessible English River water system, an area 
where hunting pressure is at present considerable and promises to 
increase with each succeeding season as hunter numbers increase. The 
area differs from most of the other winter study plots in that in 
addition to supporting a high moose population (4-2 5 moose per square 
mile observed on the area where browse survey was carried out) in 
1957, it also supports a considerable population of deer. (In the 
aerial survey of 1957, 15 deer were counted in the same area). 

This plot is located in an area which was burned over about 
1933 and as is shown in Table II, the stand of second growth is 
exceptionally dense (11,071 stems per acre). 

The study area lies on rough Pre-Cambrian rock with an 
average peat depth of seven inches - two feet over most of the area. 
Small patches of bare rock were evident as were small areas of muck 
bottomed alder swales. Throughout most of the area drainage is good. 

The overstory is composed of trembling aspen, white birch, 
b/lack spruce, balsam fir and jackpine with an average height of 30 - 
50 feet and crown density of 6 - 15%» 

One hundred and seventy browse plots, adequate to sample 
eight square miles were analyzed in this area. 

It is believed that the ungulate population in the area 
has all but reached its peak and that the moose and deer have 
reached the carrying capacity of the area. 



- 20 - 

Plot #2 at Upper Goose Lake, Lat. 51° 42 ? ; Long. 93° 40' 
is located in an area unhunted by white men until the 1957 season 
when but four moose were killed by fly-in hunters* The small kill 
being due to the fact that accessibility is by air only. 

For the past several years Air Service pilots have reported 
large numbers of moose in the area and during the last two winters 
an intensive aerial search has confirmed these reports. 1956-57 
3.9 moose / square mile; 1957-5& 1.9 moose / square mile. 

Moose are the only ungulates using this area all winter 
although a small band of caribou pass through the area periodically 
(few crotisings observed). 

As with Plot #1 the vegetation which makes the area suit- 
able moose winter habitat is the result of a burn about 1930. 
However, as can be seen upon comparing tables II and III, the species 
composition is quite different and I believe because of this the 
carrying capacity even at the peak of production was probably lower 
than that of the Oak Lake area. 

It is believed that moose numbers reached their peak two 
or three years ago. This is evidenced by the decrease in moose 
observation in the 1957-53 flight. (39 1956-57; 19 1957-58). 
Also the heavy utilization of balsam fir and the high percent of 
mutilated balsam fir, aspen, willow and white birch tends to bear out 
this hypothesis. 

This area is similar to Plot #1, lies in rough Pre-Cambrian 
rock but differs in that approximately 50^ of the surface is covered 
by sand with a shallow covering layer of peat (1" - 6" ) • Small areas 
of bare rock and muck bottomed alder swales were evident. Due to 
the predominance of sandy soil and rough topography, drainage is 
good over most of the area. 

The overstory consists of jackpine, trembling aspen, white 
birch, black spruce, balsam fir and tamarack, between 15 and 30 feet 
high and with a crown density between six and 30$. 

One hundred a -id thirty-six browse plots adequate to sample 
four and one-half square miles were analyzed in this area. 

Pellet Count 

In both areas a strip six feet wide and 66 feet long at 
five chain intervals was sampled for moose crotisings and at Oak 
Lake deer crotisings as well. In the Oak Lake area only moose and 
deer droppings presumed to be from last winter were counted but in 
the Upper Goose Lake plot both old and new droppings were recorded 
separately. It is unfortunate that this was not also done at Oak 
Lake as it is thought that a comparison of old and new provides 
some indication as to ungulate numbers in the past. The results 
are as follows. 



- 21 - 



(i) Oak Lake 

(a) Moose droppings 

Area covered l/llO x 170 = 1.55 acres 

No, of moose crotisings = 117 

No. of moose crotisings /sq. mi. = 117 x 640 

1.55 



= 49,000 



If we assume 14.9 crotisings per day are produced by a 
moose, as was found to be the case in Wells Gray Park, B.C, this 
represents 3>280 moose days per year per square mile. Another way 
of stating this (assuming pellets are produced all year and moose 
remain in the area all year) is nine moose per square mile. 



(b) Deer droppings 

Area covered = 1.55 acres 
No. of deer crotisings = 14.7 
No. of deer crotisings /sq. mi 
No. of deer per sq. mi. r 12. 8 



= 60,300 



(ii) Upper Goose Lake 
Moose droppings 

Area covered = 136 x l/llO = 1.24 acres 

No. of new moose crotisings = 32 

No. of new moose crotisings per sq. mi. = 16,50G 

No. of moose per sq. mi. = 3.04 

It is not known with certainty for how many months the 
moose and deer droppings are in pellet form but a rough estimate 
would be eight months. 

This would give population densities as followss 

(i) Oak Lake 

(a) Moose - 12 per sq. mi. 

(b) Deer - 17 per sq. mi. 

(ii) Upper Goose Lake 

Moose - 4.05 per sq. mi. 



densities, 



These compare as follows with observed winter population 



(i) Oak Lake 

(a) 25 moose on 5«9 square mile area in which pellet count was run or 
4.25 moose per square mile. 

(ii) Upper Goose Lake 

15 moose on the 3.5 square miles in which the pellet count was 
carried out or 4.3 moose per square mile. 

Obviously the moose pellet count gave a population estimate 

higher than that which actually existed in the Oak Lake area although 

the estimate for the Upper Goose Lake area is fairly close to the 
observed density. 



- 22 - 

The most logical source of error for the Oak Lake area is 
as follows I 

The crotisings were incorrectly aged and pellets more than 
one year old were counted along with the recent droppings,. This 
seems reasonable in that only new droppings were recorded in this 
area therefore the tendency to be as critical in aging pellets was 
perhaps not as great as when the pellets at Upper Goose Lake were 
examined. 

I do not believe however that an error as large as is 
indicated could have been made and offer the following as an 
explanations 

1. More moose were in the area than were actually observed during 
the winter (i.e. there is more undercover in Plot #1). 

2. The number of crotisings per day per moose could be substantially 
higher than that observed in B.C., and the close fit in Upper 
Goose Lake could have been just a lucky coincidence. 

C arrying Capacity 

Very obviously the carrying capacity of the Oak Lake Plot 
is much higher than that of the plot at Upper Goose. This is due 
to; 

(1) the greater variety of preferred browse species (see Table I). 

TABLE I - Preferred Browse Species 



Oak 


Lake 




Upper 


Goose 


Lake 


Species 


Stem/Acre 


Species 




Stem/Acre 


Balsam 




600 


Balsam 




24 


Aspen 




340 


Willow 




790 


Hazel 




4950 


Aspen 




555 


White Birch 




390 


White Bin 


^h 


1550 


Juneberry 




34* 


Alder 




1510 


Mt. Maple 




2080 








Dogwood 




410 









TOTAL 9113 TOTAL 4429 



(2) The more dense stands of these species. 

(3) The percent of available balsam mutilated. This I believe is 
one of the best indicators to the condition of the range. 
Although availability was much less in the Upper Goose plot 
60% of the stems were mutilated as compared with but 19% in the 
Oak Lake plot. 



- 23 - 

(4) 26. 8% of the aspen was killed on the Upper Goose plot and two 
other species (white birch and willow) suffered over 1+1% 
mortality. In contrast, but 15$ of the aspen was killed and 
no other species approached over 1+% mortality on the Oak Lake 
plot (see table II and III). 

Reports received from the time prior to the initiation of 
the aerial survey tend to bear out the theory that the Upper Goose 
plot had reached its optimum carrying capacity and moose population 
density about four or five years ago. Since that time the range 
has degenerated accompanied by a decline in moose numbers also. 

This rise, peak and decline (of carrying capacity) is 
typical of the various areas of moose range in the district. It is 
a process which is constantly in progress. 

For this reason it is difficult to access a value, in terms 
of carrying capacity, to our moose range in the Sioux Lookout 
district as a whole. 

The big question which we ask ourselves and would like to 
be able to answer with certainty is: What is the carrying capacity 
of good moose range? 

From the Oak Lake plot where the browse study indicates 
the range is now at about the maximum point of productivity, aerial 
survey and pellet counts indicate that the present density is from 
4.2 5 - approximately seven moose per square mile during the period 
of winter concentration. 

Data from Upper Goose Lake indicate that even on this over 
utilized area where the moose population has been observed declining, 
the carrying ^capacity is about four moose per square mile. 

It would be impossible to do ground surveys throughout our 
moose range to determine the carrying capacity of each area, however, 
the above data have enlightened us somewhat on the carrying capacity 
of a very small portion of our better moose winter range. 

Management of moose in this district has not yet approached 
the stage where we figure an adequate harvest is being taken but data 
such as this could prove useful for future range and moose popula- 
tion management when we will be attempting to manage the herd to the 
last allowable animal in the yearly crop. 

Summary 

1. A Passmore-Hepburn browse survey was made in moose winter concen- 
tration areas which differed in hunter accessibility and conse- 
quently hunting pressure. 

2. a pellet count survey was carried out at the same time over plots 
three times the size of the browse plots. 



- 24 - 

3. The carrying capacity of Plot #1 was much higher than that of 
plot #2 due to greater variety of food species and higher density 
of these species. 

4. The vegetation on both areas arose as a result of forest fires 
between 1930 and 1933. 

5o Plot #1 is presumed to be at maximum carrying capacity level 

now and plot #2 was at this level probably four or five years ago. 

6. Pellet count survey indicated a population higher than that 
observed on aerial survey. 

Conclusions 

1. The pellet count survey could be a very useful tool in estimating 
moose numbers in a winter concentration area. 

2. Work should be done in Ontario to substantiate the crotising 
count of 14*9 per day as determined in British Columbia. 

3. Our better moose range has a winter carrying capacity of from 
4.25 - seven moose per square mile. 



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- 27 - 



ENFORCEMENT PROJECT, PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, 19 5<? 

by 
Do D ? Agostini 



In the Port Arthur District, as in other Districts of the 
Province, remarkable progress has been made in Fish and Wildlife 
management in the past few years . It was felt that one tool of manage- 
ment had not kept pace with the other work in this field, and that was 
the enforcement of our Regulations . 

In order to better assess our work in this line, the following 
project was laid out for the Fish and Wildlife staff of the Port 
Arthur District . 

Commencing on September 1, 195#, a count was kept of all 
persons checked as to resident fishermen, small game and big game 
hunters . Each officer was asked to do this on his own and submit to 
District Office, at the beginning of each month, the totals under the 
above headings for the previous month. 

Where a person committed an infraction of the Regulations 
and in the opinion of the officer a warning would suffice, the officer 
made note of the following,- name, address, description, township, 
offence committed, and a few notes on the event. These were sub- 
mitted with the check count . If a charge was laid, the regular pro- 
cedure was carried out. 

The District Office kept a card system on all names submitted. 
Warnings were entered in blue and prosecutions in red. Warnings and 
prosecutions applying to the same persons were to be entered on the 
same card. With this information on file, we feel we will be in a 
better position to assess our enforcement work and employ better methods 
for this tool of management . 

There was one point emphasized - numerous warnings by an 
officer did not necessarily mean that the officer was lax in his 
duties. 

When the officer issued a warning, he informed the person 
that a record was kept of the warning and if the records showed that 
the person had been warned previously., charges may be laid. 

It was hoped to check a greater number of people^ however, 
with one officer in his third term at Ranger School, another taking 
the special course at Ranger School, and a third in the throes of 
being transferred, the Fish and Wildlife staff was very small. 



- 23 



TABLE I - 



Resident 



Non-resident 



Big Small Big Small 

Fisher- Game Game Fisher- Game Game 
men Hunters Hunters men Hunters Hunters Total 



Number 
Checked 


390 721 


1437 


534 124 


42 3293 


Charges 


19 


20 


1 5 


45 


TABLE II 


_ 










Violation 




Charges 


Warnings 



Loaded Firearm in Motor Vehicle 
Loaded Firearm in Power Boat 
Firearm Not Encased at Night 
Hunting With No Licence 
Hunting Licence Not on Person 
Miscellaneous 



10 
7 
8 

11 

9 



45 



8 
7 
4 
7 



26 



The seven persons warned for hunting without a licence were 
all juveniles. They were encouraged to take the Hunter v s Safety 
Course. 

TABLE III - 



Number Checked 
Percentage Charged 
Percentage Warned 
Percentage Violations 



Resident 


2593 




lc 


5 


1. 


1 


2, 


6 



Non-Resident 

700 

.9 
0.0 

.9 



Total 

3298 
1.4 
.8 
2.2 



Conclusion 

Owing to the small sample and short period of time this 
project has been in operation, we do not think any conclusion can be 
drawn. 



Recommendation 



tely. 



It is recommended that this project be carried on indefini- 



- 29 - 

A cknowledgments 

We gratefully acknowledge the effort put forth by all Port 
Arthur District Fish and Wildlife staff in gathering the data herein, 



- 30 - 

TWENTY-FOURTH NORTH AMERICAN WILDLIFE CONFERENCE 

NEW YORK CITY - MARCH 1-4, 1959 

by 
J. K. Reynolds 



i Report of Attendance 

Sunday - March 1st 

Following arrival in the early afternoon, I attended the 
^meeting of the Mississippi Flyway Council., Most species seem to be 
in satisfactory conditions with the exception of Canvasbacks and 
Redheads o Both these species have suffered severely because of 
droughts of the past year or two in the West. Last autumn the bag 
limit on Canvasbacks was greatly reduced over previous years in the 
United States, but no reductions were made in the Ontario bag limit. 
This is a matter of considerable annoyance to many U„ S a duck hunters 
and waterfowl biologists. 

Prospects for 1959 are not optimistico Snowfall has been 
much below average in much of the western United States and Canada. 

Much discussion centered on the best course of action to 
be taken in utilizing (in the United States) some -J^, 000. 000 per year 
to be available for the next few years for land acquisitions designed 
to benefit wildlife, especially waterfowl. At least one speaker 
probed the possibility of spending some of this in the Canadian 
Prairie Provinces. 

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

In the evening I attended a special showing of three colour 
films. The first, "White-Tail Buck*', was made under the sponsorship 
of the Winchester Division of the Olin-Matheson Chemical Corporation. 
In its 2$ minutes it portrayed the lessons and problems faced by a 
father teaching his son to be a deer hunter. Good film, but not 
outstanding. 

The second film, "The Whooping Crane' 1 , had been made by 

the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and depicted the life and times 

of North Americans rarest birds. Running time; 15 minutes. 
Excellent. 

■'The Great Country" was made for Ducks Unlimited. It has 
virtually nothing to do with waterfowl, however, but in 50 minutes 
of excellent colour shots it portrays the activities of Alaskan brown 
bears when the sockeye salmon are making their spawning run. Good 
scenery, interesting, authoritative, but of little direct value in 
Ontario. 



- 31 - 

March 2nd - Morning Sessions 

The formal opening, by Dr. Ira N. Gabrielson, President of 
the Wildlife Management Institute (which sponsors these Conferences) 
was followed by four somewhat generalized papers? 

a) Taking Stock in Conservation (E. F. Bennett) Under- 
Secretary, U. S. Dept. of the Interior); 

b) Resource Potentials in Polar Regions (Paul Siple, 
Scientific Advisor, Chief of Army Research and Development, 
Washington, D.C.); 

c) The Law and Conservation Progress (S. H. Ordway, The 
Conservation Foundation, N.Y.C.); 

d) Clean Water for a Healthy America (B. C„ Browning, 
Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District). 

March 2nd - Afternoon Sessions 

There was the usual problem, common to all North American 
Wildlife Conferences in which sessions occur simultaneously, of 
choosing the session and papers of greatest interest. Because of 
the great interest and concern now centering on the widespread and, 
in many cases, injudicious and haphazard use of pesticides, insecti- 
cides, herbicides, and similar chemicals, I attended the session in 
"Pesticides and Controls." 

In a general paper by Harlow B. Mills, Chief of the Illinois 
Natural History Survey, entitled? "Pest Control in the Modern Setting", 
the speaker emphasized these points? 

1) We are facing a new era in which chemicals for pest 
control are inevitably going to be of increasing impor- 
tance; they are virtually becoming part of our environ- 
ment; 

2) These chemicals are sure to change our environment; 

3) The use of pesticides must be made as innocuous as 
possible, recognizing that injury to wildlife populations 
will occur at some times, in some places, and under some 
conditions. 

In a paper "Pesticide-Wildlife Problems and Research Needs", 
Dr. Daniel L. Leedy of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service stated that 
in 1940 the wholesale market value of pesticides in the United States 
was about $40 million. In 1956, this figure was ^290 million, and it 
is expected to reach $1 billion by 1975. Pesticide-Wildlife research 
has failed to keep pace. We especially need to knows 



- 32 - 



What is the ability of wildlife populations to sustain 
losses and to repopulate depleted areas? 

What are the effects of pesticides, including herbicides, 
on wildlife cover, food-plants and food-animals, such as 
earthworms, which may store these chemicals? 

How do these chemicals affect migratory birds, which 
may be subject to multiple dosages? 

What are the biological effects of mosquito control 
operations on fish and other aquatic life? 

How are forest insect and disease control programmes, in- 
cluding Dutch Elm treatment, related to robins, blue- 
birds and other songbirds? 

f) What about rodent, grasshopper, and fire ant control 
programmes? 

Subsequent speakers in this session dealt in detail with 
many of the topics discussed by Dr. Leedy. The present programme 
designed to control or eliminate the exotic and extremely harmful 
fire ant now in parts of the southeastern United States, was roundly 
and vociferously criticized from the floor by many of those present. 

The only paper I sat in upon of the Session on "Wetlands 
and Inland Water Resources", which was on at the same time as the 
Pesticide Session, was the formal one, entitled "Controlled Goose 
Hunting in Michigan." It was by Charles E. Friley, of the Michigan 
Department of Conservation, one of the biologists whom Messrs. McLaren, 
Helmsley, Ussher and I visited last summer. Most of the material 
presented is contained in the report of that trip. ' There is a fairly 
detailed "Summary" of this paper in the Lake Erie District files. 

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

March 3rd - Morning Session 

I attended the presentation of only three papers, spending 
most of the morning in discussions with various delegates. 



ention being paid to inventory and census 
rn Region, the paper "Is the Lincoln 



In view of the att 
techniques in the Southweste 
Index Reliable for Cottontail Censusing?", by^ T. J. Peterle and Lee 



Eberhardt (Game Division, Mi 
special note. In Michigan, 
an index, but actual, quanti 
cottontails. Opportunities 
to secure a total population 
Experiment Station. Dr. Pet 
statitician. 



chigan Dept. of Conservation) was of 

the biologists feel that they require not 

tative estimates of populations of 

for testing the widely-used Lincoln Index 

figure were available at the Rose Lake 
erle is a biologist, Mr. Eberhardt a 



- 33 - 

One of the basic assumptions for using this Index is that 
the proportions of tagged to untagged animals in the hunters' bags 
shall be a reflection of the ratio actually existing in the field. 
It was found, however, that the proportion of tagged rabbits in the 
kill declined as the hunting season progressed. 

The authors now believe that a differential in hunting 
pressure on the trapline (experimental) areas, as compared with 
pressures in other areas may affect the data. If this is correct, 
then the population figure derived from Lincoln Index calculations 
would be smaller than the actual population, at least until every last 
rabbit, tagged and untagged, was taken. 

This is an important consideration. The text of the full 
paper is on file at Aylrner West. 

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

Although not of immediate interest to Ontario game managers, 
the paper by Scott, Kenyon, and Buckley, of the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, entitled "Status and Management of Polar Bear and 
Walrus", drew a capacity audience and much discussion. Everyone has 
an intrinsic interest in these mammals. 

Unfortunately, various circumstances combined to prevent 
Dr. Buckley from reading the entire paper, but he covered its high- 
lights and showed a series of excellent Kodachrome slides. 

It is estimated that the annual harvest of Polar Bears, 
exclusive of the kill in The U.S.S.R., is roughly divided as follows: 

Canada: 400-500 

Norway: 150-300 

Alaska: 100-200 

Greenland: 150-300 

The total population is unknown, however, there is evidence 
to indicate that there is no immediate cause for alarm, although 
declines have been reported in some areas adjacent to Greenland and 
Russia, 

The Pacific Walrus is not so well off. One study indicated 
a decline from 200,000 in the middle of the last century to some 
45,000 today. The present-day kill of these animals is believed to 
be some 10,000 per year, a figure in excess of the reproductive incre- 
ment. 

In both cases control of hunting of both species is difficult 
for two reasons: 

a) Both are species living in more than two countries and 
international legislation and enforcement are difficult 
or, for the present, impossible^ 



. 



- 34 - 

b) Much of the hunting takes place outside any one country's 
territorial waters, so that national legislation is use- 
less. In Alaska, for example, much of the trophy- hunting 
for Polar Bears takes place from, or with the assistance 
of, aircraft operating well beyond the three-mile 
territorial limit. 

Kiotxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

March 3rd - Afternoon Session 

This session was devoted entirely to very generalized 
topics ("Have We a Conservation Conscience?", "Is Science S rving 
Conservation?", and "Can Conservation Be Sold 'Around the World 9 ?", 
so I took advantage of this period to visit the rightfully famous 
galleries of the United States Museum of Natural History. This was 
worth the whole trip. 

KM.KKKKKM.KKKKKKKKKHKKK 

M arch 4th - Morning Session 

Again there were simultaneous sessions, one on Forest and 
Range Resources, the other on Education and Public Relations. With 
one exception, I chose the papers presented in the former. 

Roger M. Latham, of Pennsylvania, discussed "Emergency 
Winter Feeding of Wild Turkeys . " The populations of these birds have 
increased beyond most biologists' wildest expectations in recent 
years. Latham concluded that winter feeding could rarely be justified. 

Of particular note were his remarks about the effects of 
predation by Foxes on wild Turkeys. Many people contend that Foxes 
often limit Turkey populations, but during the recent period, when 
Turkeys in Pennsylvania were rapidly extending this range in that 
State from 3*000,000 acres to 13,000,000 acres, with accompanying 
increases in numbers, Foxes were present in the highest numbers they 
have ever reached in the history of that State. 

The paper "Moose Harvests in Newfoundland", by D, H. Pimlott, 
now of the Department of Lands & Forests, drew a great deal of 
attention and very favourable comment. Dr. Pimlott compared the 
management of Moose in Newfoundland with that in the Scandinavian 
countries. Newfoundland's exploitation of Moose, at the present rate 
of about 5 j 000 animals per year, represents the highest rate upon 
any Moose population on this continent. 

The Legislature of the Province takes no direct action in 
establishing seasons and bag limits, leaving this entirely to biologi- 
cal considerations and the advice of those charged with managing this 
important resource. There is every reason for Dr. Pimlott and those 
who are carrying on the programme he instigated to be justly proud 
of their success. 



- 35 - 

The paper "Deer Drive vs. Track Count Census" by E. L. 
Tyson, of Florida, concerned the Deer of Florida. He concluded that 
the results of the track-count method compared very favourably (at 
the 95% confidence level, there was no difference) with the more 
expensive drive method. To what extent this could be carried out 
successfully in Ontario Deer range, where vegetation, mobility of the 
Deer, and road conditions are different than in Florida, should be 
tested. 

Despite its title ("Big Game Management in The Lake States") 
the paper by Harry D. Ruhl, Chief of the Game Division of the Michigan 
Department of Conservation, outlined only the problems, which are well 
known. Only Deer were considered. Obviously, Michigan, especially 
in its areas intensively populated with humans, has about the same 
problems of dealing with deer and people as we have. 

3a£K3«3H£K5C3£K3€K3t3Q€3C«3C3€X 

March 4th - Afternoon Session 

As soon as possible at the end of the morning session I left 
the Conference room and headed for the United Nations Headquarters. 
I had lunch in the cafeteria of the General Assembly building, went 
on a conducted tour of the building, and returned to the Conference in 
time to hear the second paper of the session dealing with "Urban, 
Rural and Wild Land Planning for a Better America." 

Of particular merit was the paper "The Urban Sprawl", by 
M. E. Scheidt, of Maryland. Much as the majority of our Canadian 
communities are being faced with the problems of "surburbia", it 
certainly seems as though they are dwarfed by those in various centres 
of the United States. Increased standards of living, abundance of 
automobiles, shifts in population from the farm to urban areas and 
from urban to suburban areas, rapid increases in population, and 
many other factors have combined to create confusion and congestion 
of the most serious nature. The need for sound, well-integrated pla- 
nning, not only to recover lost ground and remedy present situations, 
but also to prevent their recurrence, is vital. 

Dr. Scheidt advocated the following minimal standards for 
"green spaces" in urban and suburban communities i 

Type of Use Acres Per 1,000 Population 

Neighbourhood parks, playing fields & 

playgrounds 4 

Urban parks 10 

Regional and State parks, parkways, etc. 10 

Open spaces 33 

TOTAL 57 






- 36 - 



The full text of this paper is on file at the District 
Office in Aylmer West, 

This paper was very well complemented by the one which 
followed it, entitled "Rural Shrinkage*', by E. C. Higbec, Professor 
of Geography, University of Delaware. 



- 37 - 



KENORA DISTRICT BEAVER PROJECT, 1957 - 195$ 

by 
P. A. Thompson 



The beaver project set up in the Kenora District in 1956-57 
was continued during the 1957-5$ trapping season. Information on 
aging techniques, sex ratios, reproduction and sale of pelts was 
collected as in the previous year. 



The two t 
Fhe latter took ove 
57o Both trappers 
weekly reports on t 

Trapping 
continued through t 
weather condition, 
dealt with in this 
Techniques, Sex Rat 

Aging Techniques 



rappers were Lars Schroder and Douglas Schroder. 
r trapline KE 50 operated by Bert Husband in 1956- 
took keen interest in the project and submitted 
heir catch. 

activities began on September 15th, 1957 and 

o May 3rd, 195$ with periodic interruption due to 

Information compiled from data received will be 
report under the following headings % Aging 
ios, Reproduction and Marketing of Pelts. 



Throughout the trapping season the trappers measured pelts 
and collected the lower jaws of as many animals taken as possible. 
Unfortunately Douglas Schroder lost his entire collection of lower 
jaws to the garbage collection crew who picked up the container in 
error. However, from Lars Schroder 9 s collection 142 animals were 
aged by the tv/o methods, pelt measurement and tooth development. 
Tooth development was checked by V. H. H. Williamson, Division of 
Research at Maple, Ontario. The following table (Table I) shows the 
number and percentage of animals by age class in the two methods. In 
tooth development the three year olds and up have been combined and 
classed as adults. 



TABLE I - 




Too 


th Development 




Pelt 


Measurement 


Age Class 


No. 


in S 

32 
29 
37 

44 


ample 


fo 


of Sample 

23 
20 
26 
31 


No . 


in Sample 

26 
31 
23 

62 


of 


of Sample 


Kit 

1 Year 

2 year 
Adult 


1$ 
22 

16 
44 


Totals 




142 






100$ 




142 






100$ 



When comparing the two methods percentagewise Kits and 
one year olds are fairly close, however, the difference of 10$ and 
13$ between the two year olds and adults, respectively, more than 



- 38 - 

ndicates there is no correlation between these two aging methods. 
Ihen aged by the tooth development method only five beaver or 3 • 5$ 
>f the total had obtained an age of five years (60 to 71 months). 

3ex Ratios 

During the 1957-58 trapping season 300 animals were sexed 
iby internal examination. Table Number II shows animals sexed by each 
trapper and gives a sex ratio for the combined effort. 



(TABLE II - 



Trapper 

L. Schroder 
D. Schroder 
Combined 



Ratio 



87 
55 

142 



84 
73 

158 



Total 

171 
129 
300 



d to 



103 s 100 
74 : 100 
90 ; 100 



The sex ratio of 74 : 100 from D. Schroder* s catch may be 
influenced by his lack of experience in trapping. 

The sex ratio for 194 beaver taken from the same areas during 
the 1956-57 trapping season figured out at 70 d to 100 9. Since then 
the trappers have been asked to experiment with trap sets in an effort 
to obtain a more balanced ratio. The ratio of 90 : 100 for the 1957/58 
season may have resulted from the trappers experimenting with new 
trap sets. It is felt the ratio obtained in 1957-58 is indicative of 
the sex ratio existing in the wild population. 

R eproduction 

All female beaver taken were examined for embryos. L. 
Schroder reported first embryos found in a female taken March 18th, 
1958. D. Schroder found first embryos in a female taken March 24th, 
1958. From March 18th to May 3rd, 14 female beaver carrying embryos 
were taken by the two trappers. 

Embryo counts from female beaver taken by both trappers are 
shown in Table III. 

table hi - 



Trapper 

L. Schroder 
D. Schroder 
Combined 



9 Over 65" 
Taken March 18 
to May 3. 1958 

8 

7 

15 



Carrying 
Embryos 

7 

7 
14 



Total 
Embryos 

36 
29 
65 



Average 
Embryo 
per 9 

5.1 

4-1 

4 « O 



The average embryo count of 4.6 compares favourably with 
the 4.4 count from the female animals examined during the 1956-57 
trapping. Again only females of a pelt size greater than 65 inches 
were found to be carrying young. 






- 39 



During the 1957-5$ season 73 testis smears were collected 
from male beaver. These samples were forwarded to the Southern 
Research Station at Maple for laboratory tests. The results of the 
tests are still pending. 

Marketing of Pelts 



The marketing of pelts taken on the project was left to the 
trappers discretion. Actual prices from 249 pelts are shown in 
tables IV and V. 



TABLE IV 
Sold To 


- So: 

Date 
Sals 

Jan. 
Feb. 

Mar. 
May 
May 
July 


Ld b- 

of 

21 
28 

5 

7 
21 

2 


/ L. Scb 

No. of 
Pelts 

32 

8 

18 

9 
27 

14 


roder 

Royal- 
ties 

32.00 
3.00 

18.00 
9.00 

27.00 

14.00 


Comm 

24.15 
11.25 
11.65 
6.14 
11.10 
11.55 


Exp- 
ress 

4.48 
1.20 
3.19 
1.35 
4.05 
2.15 

4 . 48 


Net 
Received 

392.75 
202.55 
200.16 
106.26 
191.85 
203.60 

1297.17 


Average 
Per Pelt 


Hudson 
Bay Co. 

Mont- 
real 


12.27 
25.32 
11.12 

11.81 

7.11 

14.54 


Total 


108 


12.01 


Cana- 
dian 
Fur 

Auction 
Mont- 
real 


Feb. 


12 


30 


30.00 


22.56 


318.84 


10.63 


Total 






30 


- 


- 


- 


318.84 
333.00 


10.63 


Local 


Mar. 


5 


26 


- 


- 


- 


12.81 


Total 






26 


- 


- 


- 


333.00 

$1949.01 


12.81 


Grand 
Total 






164 


- 


- 


- 


$11.88 



Price range $2.50 to $30.00, 



- 40 - 



TABLE V 
Sold To 


- Sold by 

Date of 
Sale 

Jan. 21 


D. Schroder 

No. of Royal- 
Pelts ties 

30 30.00 


Comm 
19.35 


Exp- 
ress 

6.40 


Net 
Received 

323.75 


Average 
Per Pelt 


Hudson 
Bay Co. 
Mont- 
real 


10.96 


Total 




30 
16 


- 


- 


- 


323.75 

173.75 


10.96 


Canad- 
ian 
Fur 

Auction 
Mont- 
real 


Feb. 12 


16.00 


10.10 


2.40 


10.36 


Total 




16 


- 


- 


- 


173.75 

115.00 
63.00 

153.00 

337.00 


10.36 


Local 


Apr. 9 
Apr. 21 


7 

9 

23 

39 
35 


- 


- 


- 


16.42 
7.00 
6.37 


Total 


- 


- 


- 


3.64 


Grand 
Total 




- 


- 


- 


$833.50 


$9.36 



Price range 75^ to $20.50. 

The eight pelts sold by the Hudson Bay Company, Montreal 
on February 28th were a select lot of extra large thus accounting 
for the high price received. 

S ummary 

Beaver cannot be aged by the pelt measurement method. 
There is some doubt as to the degree of accuracy in aging beaver by 
the tooth development method. It seems quite probable the number of 
older beaver from a sample of 142 aged should be greater than five 
animals. 

The sex ratio of beaver may be said to be 50 s 50. Any 
distortions may be caused by trapping methods. 



- 41 - 

Pregnant females were found to be carrying an average of 4»6 
young. All females carrying embryos were of a pelt measurement of 
65 inches or more. 

Prices ranged from 75^ to $30.00. Although current beaver 
prices are low trappers trapping on productive traplines can trap 
beaver at a profit by applying a little additional effort and 
initiative. 



- 42 - 

A FISH POISONING PROJECT REPORT FOR SUNOVA LaKE 

COUNTY OF OXFORD, PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 

by 
Jo F. Gage 



Introduction 

Sunova Lake is located in the Township of East Nissouri, 
County of Oxford, in the Southwestern part of the Province of Ontario., 
It is a typical warm water lake of approximately 4$. 3 acres in area 
with an average depth of nine feet, and a maximum depth of 1$ feet. 
It has no visible inlets or outlets. The lake is somewhat rectangu- 
lar in shape. 

Angling success over the past 10 years has been of little 
consequence with a few largemouth bass and the odd yellow pickerel 
( Stizostedion vitreum ) being caught. The pickerel were introduced 
as eyed eggs or fry by the Department of Game and Fisheries about 
1943 • A large population of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) has dominated the 
lake during the past 10 years. In 1950 a commercial seine net 
fisherman purchased a licence to operate in this lake, but upon 
examining the carp from his first haul he found them to be small and 
of poor quality, unsuited to the market. No further attempt was 
made to utilize this species. Later, several groups of sportsmen, 
and local residents, inquired into the possibilities of removing 
the carp through poison, in order to improve angling. A survey was 
made but the initial costs at that time were considered too expensive 
and the matter was dropped. 

During the winter of 1956-1957 the lake was subjected to 
a partial winter kill and hundreds of dead carp were found along the 
shorelines the following spring. 3y mid summer it was obvious that 
a large population of carp still inhabited the lake. The winter 
kill stimulated a renewal of interest in the lake by sportsmen and 
cottage owners, and a further cursory survey was conducted. With 
some of the new types of fish toxicants currently on the market it 
was estimated that the carp could be treated with a lethal dose for 
approximately Sj.450.00. 

A 32j percent duty on the fish toxicant increased the cost 
considerably. Additional costs for labour and other incidentals 
were shared by the various agencies involved. 

Property owners, cottagers, local residents, and others 
were contacted regarding the proposed scheme and money was pledged 
toward the cost. The balance was subsidized through the Upper 
Thames Valley Conservation Authority. 



- 43 - 



Project Data Sheet 



October 25, 1957 



Names 

Locations 

Date of Applications 
Reported bys 
Area of Lakes 
Capacitys 

Maximum Depths 
Average Depths 
Temperatures 

Condition of Waters 

Type of Bottoms 

Aquatic Growths 

Name of Toxicants 

Amount of Toxicant 
Applieds 

Concentration of 
Toxicants 

Species Killeds 



Estimate of Fish 
Removed by 
Pick Ups 



Sunova Lake (Mud Lake, Crystal Lake, Lakeside 
Lake) . 

Lot 24, Concession XIII, Township of East 
Nissouri, County of Oxford. 

October 3rd, 1957. 

Jas F Gage, Lake Huron District Biologist. 

4$. 3 acres. 

339.2 acre feet; 14,799,099.3 cubic feet; 
933,693,737.6 pounds. 

15 feet. 

9 feet 

Bottom 5$ degrees Fahrenheit; Surface 5# 
degrees Fahrenheit, 

Turbid. 

Mostly much, some hardpan and clay. 

Scarce - Genus potamoggton and pond lilies. 

Pro Noxfish (emulsion) Rotenone 2.5^ sulfoxide. 

110 U. S. Gallons, or 330 pounds. 

.94 ppm. 

Carp ( Cvprinus carpio ) 

Largemouth Bass ( Micropterus salrnoides ) 
Yellow Pickerel ( Stizo5tedion~vitreumT 
Spottail Shiner ( Notropis hudsonius ) 
Rosyface Shiner ( Notropis rubellus ) 
Green Sunfish ( Lepomis cvanellus ) 
We stern Mud Minnow (Umbra limi) 



approximately 4,000 pounds 



- 44 - 



FIGURE I - 



Sunova Lake 
Contour Map 




I 



. 



\ 


\ 


' 


\ 


\ 




1 


\ 




\ \ 




\ \ 


\ 

\ 





I i 



:,/ 



: 



FIGURE II - Sunova Lake 




Base of 
Operations 



50 500 
i 250' 



- 46 - 

Before the project was undertaken an agreement petition 
(see Figure IV) was circulated amongst property owners at the lake. 
[This was done so that all persons directly concerned at Sunova Lake 
would be aware of the conditions, limitations, expectations and 
responsibilities. 

P urpose 

The purpose was to remove as completely as possible the 
carp population through the medium of a fish toxicant, with a view 
to improving the angling for game fish species in Sunova Lake. 

FIGURE III - Age Determination Table 

Species Average Lengths (inches) Age Years 

Largemouth Bass 12 l/4 to 13 1/2 5 * 

Pickerel 13 3/4 to 14 3 + 

19 1/2 to 20 4 t 

22 1/4 to 23 1/2 6 t 

Carp 13 1/2 5 t 



- 47 - 

IFIGURE IV - Petition Agreement 

L akeside Poisoning, Project - September 18, 1957 

We the undersigned do hereby petition the UPPER THAMES 
RIVER CONSERVATION AUTHORITY and the ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND 
FORESTS to conduct and supervise the removal of coarse fish, by the 
use of a fish toxicant in Lakeside Lake (Crystal, Mud, Sunova) in 
the Township of East Nissouri, County of Oxford. 

We fully understand that - 

(1) An organized work party will be required to remove the dead fish 
from the lake and dispose of same. 

(2) Some objectionable odour will result from the dead fish. 

(3) That the use of the water for all domestic purposes, water for 
cattle, and swimming, must be restricted for at least one month. 

(4) That the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests; The Upper Thames 
River Conservation Authority; and the S. B. Penick Company, who 
are supplying the poison, cannot guarantee an absolute one 
hundred percent (100$) complete kill of fish. 

Name Lot Concession Home Address 






- i+S - 

Method 

Although the lake had been surveyed by biologists of the 
Department of Lands and Forests several years previously, it was 
considered advisable to repeat a good deal of the work. Consequently 
a thorough sounding of the lake was made and contour maps prepared. 
Figure I shows a copy of the contour map drawn by R. E. Mason, 
Assistant Biologist. 

The area of the lake - 43.3 acres - was computed and the 
total volume in cubic feet and in pounds was compiled as accurately 
as possible. 

It was revealed that the lake contained in the order of 
some nine hundred million pounds of water (see data sheet for exact 
figures). A search through the literature revealed that carp 
required a higher concentration of poison than did most species. 
However, an experiment conducted by J e D. Roseborough, Biologist, 
at Fanshawe Lake on spot kills using a concentration of .5 ppm had 
been successful in killing carp. 

It was decided to use a fish toxicant known as Pro Noxfish 
a new development and product prepared by the S. B. Penick and 
Company, of New York, which contains 2.5 percent rotenone and a 
synergist of 2.5 percent sulfoxide. 

To insure as complete a kill as economically possible the 
concentration of Pro Noxfish was calculated at approximately 1. ppm. 
This would have required 117 U. S. gallons but since the material 
is shipped in 55 U. S. gallon drums, only two of these were ordered 
for convenience sake, providing 110 U. S. gallons or a concentration 
of .94 ppm. 

Other preliminary survey work included the setting of gill 
nets for species composition, water temperatures, pH and oxygen 
determinations. 

In preparation for the application of the Pro Noxfish the 
lake was measured and divided in six main sections 240 feet wide by 
1,000 feet long (see Figure II). Each section was marked by stakes 
driven into the bottom and extending several feet above the surface 
of the water. Each section was identified by a coloured card and 
letter symbol "A" to "F" inclusive. The four irregular shaped areas 
remaining on the four sides of the lake were simply called areas 
one to four. 

A boat driven by an outboard motor was assigned to each 
section and to areas one and three. A crew of two men was assigned 
to each boat, a boat operator and a toxicant applicator. A 3rd 
man was assigned to each section on shore to keep toxicant containers 
refilled, and to act as a marker for the boat operator. 



- 49 - 

Areas two and four were sufficiently accessible by wading, 
to be sprayed with portable pressure pumps. 

Two U. S. quarts of Pro IJoxfish were poured in a five 
gallon container and mixed with IS quarts of water. A length of 
rubber hose attached to the bottom of each can permitted the liquid 
to drain completely in 4 1/2 minutes. Each boat taking a five foot 
swath travelled across the length in each section for 1,000 feet 
in about 2 1/4 minutes, returning in the same length of time, laying 
out a path of toxicant in the wash of the outboard propellor. Thus 
a section 10 feet wide by 1,000 feet in length received two quarts 
of toxicant. Each section was covered by 24 return trips using 
12 gallons of toxicant for each section. The six sections and 
areas one and three received approximately 96 gallons of Pro Noxfish. 
A small surplus of material resulted here due to small discrepancies 
in measuring an exact quart for each of the 192 re-fills involved. 

This surplus was applied to the area within the 15 foot 
contour levels. 

The remaining 14 gallons were used on areas two and four 
mixing one quart of toxicant with 2 l/2 gallons of water in portable 
pressure pump sprayers. This operation was chiefly in amongst heavy 
shoreline emergent vegetation. 

The entire application for all areas was made simultaneously, 
commencing at 11:00 a.m. and finishing about 3*00 p.m.. Some 
operators stopped for lunch but this was a staggered process with 
others finishing their section completely before stopping to eat. 
It is estimated the entire process required 3»5 hours. 

A light breeze from the northeast created a definite drift 
toward the southwest side of the lake and carried some poison in that 
direction. 

Dead and dying fish first appeared on the southwest side 
in quantity. 

The temperature of the water during the application was 53 
degrees Fahrenheit. 

Results 

The first species to show signs of distress were minnows 
of the Spottail Shiner ( Notropis hudsonius ) variety, and Rosyface 
Shiner ( Notropis rubellusT I These were followed by young of-the-year 
Largemouth Bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) and Green Sunfish ( Lepomis 
c yanellus ) . 

By 6:00 p.m. on October 3rd, eight yellow pickerel, two 
largemouth bass over nine inches in length and 300 carp were 
recovered. At this time dying fish were appearing everywhere and the 
recovery of fish was stopped. 



- 50 - 

Scale samples were taken for age determination from fish 
in the initial recovery. The results are shown in Figure III. 

By Sunday, October 6th, 1957, the shores were littered 
with dead carp. Four more yellow pickerel were recovered and one 
largemouth bass over nine inches in length. There were some young 
bass between two and five inches in length but not as many as one 
would expect to find in a lake of this size. One or two very small 
pickerel were also recovered, providing evidence of some natural 
spawning. 

Some of the carp carried a hereditary distinction in which 
they showed only a few large mirror-like scales. These fish are 
often called mirror carp. The dead fish were pitch forked into 
boats and transported to a manure spreader and tractor at the north 
end of the lake, where they were hauled away to a local farmer 9 s field 
for ploughing down. 

It is estimated that approximately 4,000 pounds of dead 
carp were removed from the lake in the pick up. Since most of the 
fish did not exceed 2.5 pounds this represents a large number of 
fish. It is difficult to estimate the entire kill since a great 
many carp sank to the bottom. Many of these floated to the surface 
in the weeks following. 

Three weeks after the application of Pro Noxfish, on 
October 23rd, a toxicity test was carried out by placing three Creek 
Chub ( Semotilus atromaculatus ) and six Longnose Dace ( Rhinichthys 
c ataractae ) in a wire cage and submerging same for 20 hours. The fish 
were lively and appeared to have suffered no ill effects upon examina- 
tion. 

The project was carried out in the fall of the year in 
order not to interfere with the normal use of the water in the lake 
by bathers, cottagers, etcetera. Application of the fish toxicant 
during the fall overturn also provided for a better mixing of the 
material and therefore a more uniform concentration. 

Some of the operators, particularly those using an open 
spray from pack pumps and those handling and measuring the toxicant, 
complained of a slight irritation and a burning sensation in the 
throat but no serious after effects were reported. 

Summary 

(1) At the time of writing this report it was too early to determine 
definitely whether or not the fish toxicant effected a 100 
percent kill, although no live fish have been observed. 

(2) The application of the fish toxicant might have been more 
efficiently and economically applied by a larger power spray if 
such machinery had been available. 



- 51 - 

(3) The pick-up of dead fish should always be given serious considera- 
tion in projects of this nature since it involves a great deal 

of manual labour. 

(4) One of the sidelights of this project is a curious and unexplained 
absence of young carp. A thorough examination of all shorelines, 
shallow water areas, etcetera, failed to reveal a single speci- 
men of carp less than 12 inches in length. The 13 inch carp 
recovered were classed as five years of age although some 
regeneration of the scales for the early years of the fish was 
present in the samples collected. 

(5) A final assessment of the value obtained in removing the carp 
population cannot be made for several years when the angling 
success for re-introduced game species can be measured. 

R ecommendations 

The current plan is to re-introduce largemouth bass as the 
game-fish species most likely to provide the most angling for the 
most people. 

The introduction of a forage species such as minnows or 
bluegills should not be considered until 1959 or later when sufficient 
evidence is collected to support their introduction. 

A cknowledgment s 

The author wishes to express his thanks for the co-operation 
received from employees of the Upper Thames River Conservation 
Authority; members of the Oxford Fish and Game Protective Association; 
Conservation Officers of the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests; 
students from the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph; and cottage 
owners, property owners and local residents. 

A special tribute of thanks is due to Mr. Leonard N. 
Johnson, Secretary-Treasurer for the Upper Thames River Conservation 
Authority; the Fish and Wildlife Advisory Board Members of the Upper 
Thames River Conservation Authority, whose encouragement and support 
made the project possible; and Mr. H. W. Clark, Conservation Officer 
for the County of Oxford/who made most of the local arrangements; 
Mr. R. E. Mason, Assistant Biologist, Lake Huron District, who 
re-surveyed the lake and checked over the data; and Mr. E. R. Meadows, 
Mr. W. H. Cantelon and Dr. H. R. McCrimmon for their able assistance 
and advice during the application of the fish toxicant. 



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